Thursday, August 22, 2019

Causes of the Arab-Israeli Conflict Essay Example for Free

Causes of the Arab-Israeli Conflict Essay The origins of the conflict between Arabs and Israelis lie deeply in religious and historical times. The aftermath of World War Two instigated the rise of Zionism and Arab nationalism, escalating the religious and cultural differences between the two nationalities. Foreign interference from western nations negatively intervened in the tensions between Arabs and Israelis. The decline of the Ottoman Empire gave opportunities for Britain to impose the Mandate System which increased hostilities between Arabs, Israelis and the Western world. Conflict between the Arabs and the Israelis were mainly due to the rise of Zionism and Arab Nationalism. Following the Holocaust and other events in WWII, Jewish people were even more displaced and were encouraged by Herzl and Weizmann’s Zionist movement to migrate back to the homeland, modern day Palestine. This was perceived by the Arab inhabitants as an invasion. The Jewish brought with them international expertise to boost the economy, dominating the finance and agricultural industries. Arabs reacted with violence, attacking Jewish settlements of Tel Aviv and Haifa in 1920. The Jews in response created the Haganah, the Jewish Defence Force dedicated to maintaining the security of the settlements. Another factor was the shared religious interest in Jerusalem and the Dome of the Rock, which is a central focal point in the conflict over borders. The Arabs mobilised very slowly but eventually the Arab Nationalism movement was founded, their aim to establish Arab rule in the Middle East, directly contrasting with Zionism thus inevitably leading to conflict. Their strong religious and cultural differences were crucial to the Arab-Israeli conflict. International interest in the nature of the Arab-Israeli relationship was counterproductive to reconciling the differences between the two ethnicities. Early attempts by interested parties to make agreements ended in failure and abandonment due to contradictory and inconsistent promises. The Hussein-McMahon Correspondence of 1915 was a series of a letters between the Arabs and the British. The correspondence promised British support for an Arab independence if the Arabs revolted against the Ottoman Empire family. This alliance however, was juxtaposed by the next agreement, the Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916. Made between Britain, France and Russia, it discussed the division of the Middle  East with Arabia as an independent state while Palestine would be jointly ruled by the three co-conspirators. The revelation reinforced the determination of the Arabs to be independent. The Balfour Declaration of 1917 complicated the situation further since it appeared to be promising the establishment of a Jewish National State in a letter between the British and the Jewish. The UN Partition Plan in 1947 gave the opportunity for Zionist leader Ben Gurion to declare the establishment of the State of Israel and was the catalyst for the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, one of many violent conflicts that would perpetuate as the conflict continued to be unresolved. The uncoordinated, duplicitous and irrational efforts by the western world to intervene in the Arab-Israeli conflict were weaknesses clearly thought to be necessary and instead increased the tensions between the two nations. The collapse of the Ottoman Empire left the fate of the Middle East to the League of Nations. They implemented the Mandate System, a form of governance designed to assist the fractured Arab community to establish independence by administering regions until they were ready for self-governance. However, their ulterior motives to maintain access to key resources in the area, mostly oil deposits and the Suez Canal prevented both Arab nationalist and Zionist aims. The actions of these nations were detrimental to the relations between Arabs and Israelis and contributed to the Arab-Israeli conflict. The major causes of the Arab-Israeli conflict were foreign interference, nationalism and the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. These factors were critical to the development and escalation of hostilities between the two nations torn over one land.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Features Of Connected Speech In English English Language Essay

Features Of Connected Speech In English English Language Essay Blurred boundaries, sounds and even words that are completely swallowed up, chewed and mangled words that force you to listen with all your acquired knowledge and a general sense of hopelessness that you are never going to manage this foreign tongue are but the most common frustrations expressed by the ESL learners I have taught. L2 users educated in a system that prides in teaching the most precise and appropriate pronunciation leaves them bewildered when they hear English (even snippets of conversation) as spoken by L1 users. They suffer a devastating diminution of phonetic information at the segmental level when they encounter normal speech (Brown, G.1990, p.60) Connected speech is not a familiar feature to even fluent speakers of English in India and so they tend to fully form the words even in informal situations, giving the impression to L1 speakers and other L2 speakers that, hes so arrogant about it all (Crystal and Davy 1975,p.8) In this essay I would analyse the features of connected speech in English, the problems they cause to L2 learners in India. In the first section I will examine the features of connected speech and move onto the challenges they cause to L2 speakers especially Indian ESL learners. I would also like to analyse my own and the prevailing attitude and practice towards learning and teaching connected speech. Finally I would like to identify the criteria that I would apply in deciding the different aspects of connected speech suitable to my learning/ teaching environment. Connected speech Underhill A (1994) defines connected speech as a flow of sounds which are modified by a system of simplifications through which phonemes are connected, grouped and modified This simplification is an unconscious process and most of the L1 speakers are often unaware of this as they practise it. (Collins B, and I. Mees 2008). The goal of connected speech is to reduce the articulatory effort required to send the message. Even though whole chunks of phonetic details are left out by the L1 speaker to maximise the ease of communication, native listener decodes these messages using the different types of support knowledge in his repertoire. This reduction often takes place within words or words in a stream of speech (Dalton C. and B. Seidlhofer, 1994), where word boundaries get blurred. Words flow seamlessly, allowing the L1 speaker to make use of the stress system to emphasise the content of the message. In this flow adjacent sounds are modified to resemble each other- Assimilation-; sounds are completely left out of words Elision-; and certain sounds maybe inserted between the words to fuse the words together at boundaries- Linking-. Features of connected speech Assimilation L1 speakers speak at a pace of 350 syllables per minute in formal speeches and 400- 450 words in informal speech. (Crystal.D 1992; 1999) When the tongue has to move from one articulating position to another at this pace, only an approximation of the phoneme can be produced. Thus all phonemes occurring within a word or in a stream of speech influence one another and adjust with the phonemes of their neighbours (Brown, G.1990). Underhill (1994) summarises assimilation as the natural result of the various speech organs cutting corners as they perform their complex sequence of movementsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Though any sound can influence any other sound theoretically assimilation is limited to a few phonemes (Dalton C. and B. Seidlhofer, 1994) Alveolar consonants /t/, /d/ and /n/ at the end of a word often assimilate to the place of articulation of the consonant at the beginning of the next word (Underhill, 2005, p.60) EÉ ¡Ãƒâ€¹Ã‚  Great Britain / greÉ ªtbritÉâ„ ¢n / / greÉ ªÃƒÅ Ã¢â‚¬ pbrÉ ªtÉâ„ ¢n / Wont come / wÉâ„ ¢ÃƒÅ Ã…  ntkÊŒm / / wÉâ„ ¢ÃƒÅ Ã…  nʆkÊŒm / Down by law / daÊÅ  nbaÉ ªlɆ: / / daÊÅ  mbaÉ ªlɆ: / Good girl / gÊÅ  dgÉœ:l / / gÊÅ  ggÉœ:l / Elision When the speech effort is reduced for maximum efficiency, the articulation of individual phonemes gets weakened. When these phonemes are minimised markedly they are dropped from connected speech. Elision is the process of dropping a sound (a vowel or a consonant), from a word when it is uttered as part of connected speech. RP sounds short and clipped to L2 speakers and speakers of other varieties of English due to elision of the schwa (/Éâ„ ¢/) sound. The most commonly elided sounds in English are /t/, /d/ and /Éâ„ ¢/. The consonants that are elided almost as frequently as these are /v/ and /ÃÆ' °/ /t/ First three fÉœstÃŽÂ ¸ri fÉœsÃŽÂ ¸ri Last year lÉ‘stjiÉâ„ ¢ lasjiÉâ„ ¢   /d/ ground pressure É ¡raÊÅ  ndpreʃÉâ„ ¢ É ¡raÊÅ  mpreʃÉâ„ ¢ Banned for life Bà ¦ndfÉâ„ ¢laÉ ªf Bà ¦mfÉâ„ ¢laÉ ªf /Éâ„ ¢/ Chocolate tʃɆ kÉâ„ ¢ lÉâ„ ¢t tʃɆk lÉâ„ ¢t Vegetable vɆºÃƒÅ Ã‚ ¤Ãƒâ€°Ã¢â€ž ¢ tÉâ„ ¢ blÃÅ' © vɆºÃƒÅ Ã‚ ¤ tÉâ„ ¢ blÃÅ' © /v/ Weve been considering WivbinkÉâ„ ¢nsideriņ¹ WÉ ªbÉ ªnkÉâ„ ¢nsideriņ¹ Needs of the NidzÉâ„ ¢vÃÆ' °Ãƒâ€°Ã¢â€ž ¢ NidzÉâ„ ¢ÃƒÆ' °Ãƒâ€°Ã¢â€ž ¢ /ÃÆ' °/ I think that was aÉ ªÃƒÅ½Ã‚ ¸Ãƒâ€°Ã‚ ªÃƒâ€¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¹kÃÆ' °Ãƒâ€°Ã¢â€ž ¢twÉâ„ ¢z ʌΠ¸Ãƒâ€°Ã‚ ªÃƒâ€¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¹kÉâ„ ¢twÉâ„ ¢z Went the way of the WentÃÆ' °Ãƒâ€°Ã¢â€ž ¢weÉ ªÃƒâ€°Ã¢â€ž ¢vÃÆ' °Ãƒâ€°Ã¢â€ž ¢ WentÉâ„ ¢weÉ ªÃƒâ€¹Ã‚ ÃƒÆ' °Ãƒâ€°Ã¢â€ž ¢ Vowel reduction Unstressed vowels in the stream of speech are shortened and are often centralized to a schwa (/Éâ„ ¢/) sound. An unaccented diphthong in a similar setting can lose the length of the vowel glide or could even be reduced to a monophthong. Must mÊŒst mÉâ„ ¢s There ÃÆ' °eÉâ„ ¢ ÃÆ' °ÃƒÅ Ã¢â‚¬â„¢Ãƒâ€¹Ã‚  Strong and weak forms Function class words in unaccented positions are reduced to their weak forms in connected speech. The degree of reduction depends on the rate of speech delivery; the faster the speech, the greater the reduction of vowel sounds. StronÉ ¡ Weak And à ¦nd Éâ„ ¢n Of É’v Éâ„ ¢v To tʆ¹ tÉâ„ ¢ Linking Dalton C. and B. Seidlhofer (1994) describe linking as the consequence of two vowel sounds meeting at a vowel boundary. In such situations an extra sound is inserted to mark the transition between the two vowels. Linking / r/ In RP /r/ is not realised in pronunciation except when it is followed by a vowel. In connected speech /r/ is articulated when the following word starts with a vowel. Sooner suË nÉâ„ ¢ sooner or later suË nÉâ„ ¢rɆÃƒâ€¹Ã‚ leÉ ªtÉâ„ ¢ Sure ʃɆÃƒâ€¹Ã‚  sure enough ʃɆÃƒâ€¹Ã‚ rÉ ªnÊŒf Intrusive /r/ Some speakers insert a /r/ even when there is no /r/ in the spelling. Intrusive /r/ carries a certain social stigma and educated L1 speakers often deny having an intrusive /r/ in their connected speech. The presence of intrusive in connected speech is quite frequent among non-rhotic L1 speakers. Idea aÉ ªdÉ ªÃƒâ€°Ã¢â€ž ¢ idea of it aÉ ªdÉ ªÃƒâ€°Ã¢â€ž ¢rÉ’vÉ ªt Intrusive /w/ and /j/ When a word ending in a vowel is followed by another vowel, L1 speakers insert a consonant sound that is nearer to the sound of the first vowel. É ¡o out É ¡Ãƒâ€°Ã¢â€ž ¢ÃƒÅ Ã¢â‚¬ ¹waʆ¹t I am aÉ ªjam She is ʃiË jis Catenation In connected speech, L1 speakers tend to connect the last consonant sound in a word with the first vowel sound of the next word. Keep out kiË p aʆ¹t Key pout kiË  paʆ¹t A name Éâ„ ¢ neÉ ªm An aim Éâ„ ¢n eÉ ªm Connected speech- Teach Reception and or Production? Challenges to L2 learners and teachers An awareness of connected speech features is essential to facilitate listening comprehension in an ESL learner. A lack of these features does not affect intelligibility drastically and the decision of how much (the degree) and when to convert the declarative knowledge to procedural knowledge should be left to the L2 learners. Jennifer Jenkins (2000) argues that the assimilatory process will be acquired naturally if learners progress in their knowledge and control of the language is sufficient to enable them to speed up the rate of their speech. Thus we understand that a learners acquisition of knowledge in one area would positively affect his performance in another area, and that even though most if not all of this is eminently learnable with exposure to an L1 atmosphere, it is not always teachable. The criteria for teaching connected speech would be arrived at by observing the teachability- learnability scale. What the L2 learners need at this point could be a simulation of the mate rnal speech to children à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ mothers alternate between clarified and distorted forms and this seems to enable the children to develop rules of correspondence between the model and distorted forms they will normally encounter (Ratner 1984). Exposing the L2 learners to both careful colloquial speech and rapid colloquial speech could help them to understand these varieties at a declarative level and thereby position them for a procedural development at their own pace. Indian learners of English (ILE) are unfamiliar with the connected speech feature assimilation. In my anecdotal experience I have noticed that the educated speakers in India (for that matter even the uneducated speakers) utter each word in a sentence almost as though they are articulated in isolation. This syllable timed articulation is carried forward even when they speak a stress timed language like English. This trait becomes problematic at the reception level as ILE listeners expect the same vocal and phonemic clarity even when they are listening to English. Gillian Browns (1990) observation that an L2 listener suffers a devastating diminution of phonetic information, in such situations aptly summarises the confusion and panic they feel. So I believe that L2 learners of English should be made familiar with the assimilation features, so that they can understand the content of the discussion/ interaction without having to decode language features each and every time. In my teaching practices I think I have been unconsciously following the suggestions that Gillian Brown (1990) proposes: I have already suggested that I do not approve of teaching students to produce assimilated forms and elided forms. Sophisticated students who have been taught to be aware of these forms will introduce them into their own speech in a natural context when they feel able to control them Assimilation becomes a problem at the production level only when the L2 speakers interact with the L1 listeners, but then L1 listeners are mostly aware of this difficulty of the L2 speakers and make necessary adjustments to their linguistic and emotional responses. As an L2 user and as a teacher I believe that a few words uttered painfully slow to achieve connected speech would create more confusion to the L1 speaker than a total absence of assimilatory/ connected speech features. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ slower speech made to incorporate features of connected speech is reduced to gibberish (Crystal D. 1992;1999). One of the major arguments that exist against this stand is that an absence of assimilatory features would prevent the L2 speakers from using intonation patterns and rhythm and would lead to loss of fluency. (Underhill A. 1994) and he suggests exposing ESL learners to rapid colloquial speech as a useful activity for improving listening comprehension. Even though elision is a feature that is present in most Indian languages, the Indian ESL learner may struggle to understand and participate in a conversation with an L1 speaker employing rapid colloquial speech. This is because elision is not a feature that is taught in Indian classrooms. Moreover, elision carries a certain social stigma among educated Indians and so they might actively resist adopting elision in their speech practices as well. Dropping sounds is equated with a lower social class and could also be interpreted as a sign of poor education. As with assimilation, elision can cause confusion at the reception level for the L2 listener, if he has always been exposed to correct and fully articulated speech. An L2 speaker trying to include elision in a slow speech would confuse the L1 listener. As demonstrated by Crystal in his experiment the sentence I wouldnt have been able to in fluent speech may become /Éâ„ ¢ wÊÅ  bmpÉ ªneÉ ªblÉâ„ ¢/. Spoken more slowly by a learner who is being encouraged to use the various features of connected speech, it could come across like this: /Éâ„ ¢ wÊÅ  bÉâ„ ¢m pÉ ª neÉ ª blÉâ„ ¢/,with each syllable being carefully articulated. In this case it would at best sound ridiculous and at worst would be rendered completely incomprehensible. (Jennifer Jenkins, 2000) Another contentious area is the teaching of weak forms. As pointed out by David Brazil (1994) the contradiction of focusing in the classroom on a feature whose quality is precisely the result of speakers not focusing on it. This pedagogic focus may then, paradoxically, impede the later acquisition of weak forms in learning outside the classroomà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ (Jennifer Jenkins, 2000). Jennifer Jenkins challenges the notion of the need to weaken an unimportant sound to highlight an important one and points out that if the important sounds are stressed then the meaning would become clear to the listener. Reading about this approach and thinking further on it has convinced me that this is the way to go forward. The hours of drilling that I have been forcing on my students might have been counterproductive. I feel that this is another area where declarative knowledge should be allowed to mature to a procedural knowledge at the students own pace. Listening comprehension and thereby communication is enhanced by dissimilatory practices rather than assimilatory processes, as they give primary importance to the hearers needs by subordinating the speech strategies of a speaker. I would still like to believe that the assimilatory features are what give the English language its identity. But for learners at a transactional level with L1 speakers or with other L2 speakers conquering these features could be daunting and unnecessary for everyday communication. As David Crystal (1999) suggests The possibility of L2 learners becoming competent in both syllable and stress based speech and being able to shift effortlessly from one to other, depending on the need of the circumstance, either to proclaim a national identity or to improve international intelligibility, is not an improbability and that is what I would like to strive for and encourage my learners to aim for.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

A Muslim Experience Of Going To Church

A Muslim Experience Of Going To Church This week I visited the St. Bernard church located on 143rd and Parker Rd in Homer Glen, IL. My friend came with me, she is also Muslim. We actually visited it twice. The first time it was like 6 pm, and it was dark out. We thought it would be open because our mosque is always open. So we went and as we were pulling up, we got scared. It was dark, and all I saw was crosses, and when I was getting ready to open the door to see if anyone was there, I just freaked out and left. I dont know why, but it looked to us as if it was closed. I really thought there would be someone sitting there or something. But then my friend and I went the next day in the morning. As we arrived at the church the next morning we saw a lot of families, and people getting together. They all seemed so happy. At first I was all excited with my pen and notebook, then I was kind of shy and scared to walk in, I really dont know why. Everyone was really nice, so we walked in. The first person that came up to me was a girl that my friend knew from high school she was really surprised to see us there, so she stuck with us and made it less awkward for us. She said Sabreen the first thing you need to know is Catholic means universal that should be a great way to start your essay. I liked that, I never knew that. It was pretty loud in there. Everyone was talking and laughing. I was very surprised to see how loud it is; because I always thought that a place of worship would be quiet. In my place of worship, the mosque, it is really quiet and everyone whispers. We consider it to be very inappropriate to be loud, unless everyone is ready to go home. But I noticed when the prie st started talking everyone became quiet; similar to the mosque when the Sheikh gives a lesson/lecture everyone becomes quiet. The gathering was motivating. The melody was a bit loud and from time to time it completed me to feel awkward again I mean it was one atmosphere I have by no means existed in. At Mosques, there truly are not any melodic gadgets and as I mentioned it is a lot calmer. Anyway as I walked in I had to say the WOW. There was stained glass everywhere. I mean everywhere. It was so beautiful. And there were people around the holy water they started dipping their hands in there. It was so cool. Ive heard about holy water before. We Muslims also have Holy water our Holy water is ZamZam. It is only located in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. But there are bottles of ZamZam now where we can buy at some Islamic stores. We consider it to be so pure. And everyone that goes to do pilgrimage goes by the holy water and starts drinking and also dipping their hands in it. There were many sc ulptures of diverse volumes and forms. In Islam, There are no sculptures because it is an offense. It is also an offense to have any images in spite of of what they describe in a Mosque, where the church was fully enclosed in pictures. The pictures were so beautiful; I cannot even describe them they were just outstanding how they were made. I have learned a whole lot from this experience. I talked to many people; many of them were very nice, and willing to share with me about the Catholic Religion. I learned that Catholics consider with the intention of Christ is the messiah of the aged proofs called Messianic prophecies. In an occasion recognized since the personification, the Church educates people on that, throughout the control of the sacred strength, the lord developed into joint by means of soul natural world as soon as Christ was considered in sacred Virgin Mary. Christ is understood, so, to be in cooperation entirely delightful and completely being. People follow Christs teachings and his wisdom. Similarly to Muslims we follow Prophet Mohammads teachings and wisdoms. It is so interesting how hopes and dedications for Virgin Mary are a division of Catholic faithfulness but are different from the devotion to God. The Church embraces Mary, as an everlasting virgin and as a mother of God. So what I understood was that Virgin Mary was so important to them it was more of respect then worship towards her their beliefs consist of her clean and tidy formation with no blemish of a sin and physical supposition into paradise at the finish of her existence. Catholics believe Christ rose from the dead on Easter Sunday, they believe in the rebirth the spirit of Jesus was joined up to His corpse by His individual heavenly authority. Muslims believe that When Jesus was on the cross, he never died, and that Alllah (God) took him up to heaven and put a person that looks like him instead. We believe that Jesus is up in heaven with Allah right now, Also that when Jesus comes down one day, that will be on the Day of Judgment. Some people thought I was thinking of converting, this religion is really interesting but I dont think I will convert. I mean I grew up knowing all about Islam, and in this class I have learned about many other religions. But I am sticking to Islam, because I feel like it is the right religion for me, more like I know it is the right religion for me. After I went home many of my friends and family thought I was going to get into an argument with someone about being wrong or something. I tend to be a very defensive person. But I really wanted to understand the different religions out there. I really want to go to a Jewish synagogue one day and see what the Jews believe; I mean you dont believe it till you see it right? I read all these essays, and the books, and researched about many religions, but I really want to start experiencing them. This experience was beyond awesome. Sabreen

Monday, August 19, 2019

Essay examples --

Introduction The development of the internet has led to various milestones in the world of marketing. It has made it possible for people to defeat the challenge of physical distance. This idea is very useful for business people who are in the field of marketing their products. Cambria et al (2011) observes that there have been increased costs as far as the traditional advertisement is concerned. In addition, traditional ads only reach a limited number of people. In cases where such advertisements are made in international media stations such as the CNN, huge costs are involved. Internet marketing has come to resolve this challenge once and for all. For people or businesses that may not have the money to advertise in the traditional media such as the television and newspapers, social media is the best place to go. With the advent of hand held devices such as the smart phones and tablet computers, it is very easy to take pictures or photographs and actually share them with the world at the comfort of one’s home. This paper is focused on the whole idea of social media marketing and how photographers can optimize the opportunities that come with it. It will also address the advantages that make social networking sites more attractive than the traditional media. Social networking sites offer photographers with cheap, effective and robust chance to display their work to people across the entire globe; a property that the traditional media offers at a very high expense. Social Media Marketing â€Å"Social† media is distinct from traditional media. The former includes virtual places where people â€Å"meet† to share experiences. In this view, internet is the most impressive human discovery that ever exists. Through the support of internet, it has b... ...tional advertising. It reaches more people; it is cheap, convenient, flexible and effective. However, one condition must be fulfilled: the photographer must be ready to invest time in it. In other words, one should be active online. If more than two social media platforms are involved, this could mean that the person spends up to 6 hours in a day just promoting the product. Moreover, the effort is worth it. Strategic social media marketing could yield better results, in many cases, than the prospects if traditional advertising. Significantly, while traditional media advertisements are short-lived, social media platforms could stay as long as the post, discussion or article or is visible online. In the final analysis, photographers should be enthusiastic about the opportunity that social media and the internet provide as far as marketing of photographs is concerned.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Settling a New World Essay -- essays research papers fc

The very survival of the early settlers to the New World would depend much upon the generosity of the Native Americans. Had the natives not been so helpful and had instead violently resisted the newcomers, European settlers might not have been so eager to come settle this new land. Both Jamestown and Plymouth would depend upon the goodwill of the native people for their initial survival while establishing their settlements. The Indians not only introduced the area’s indigenous food sources but also their agriculture techniques to the settlers. The settlers would depend upon these for their survival in a new and unfamiliar land. Being able to provide their own food would be the first step in successfully establishing the new colonies, once the settlers were able to do this their numbers grew. With that growth in population came a desire for more settlement territory, it would be this desire for more land that would lead to unrest between the Native Americans and the settlers. Upon their arrival to the New World in May 1607, the newcomers built a settlement and established it as Jamestown. Of the 104 settlers, many were â€Å"gentlemen† and ill suited for the tasks ahead. The area was swamp†¦ warm, humid and riddled with mosquito infested malarial bogs of water and parasites carrying numerous other diseases. In their haste to find wealth and the Northwest Passage to Asia, the men neglected to plant crops to replenish their food supplies, which were dwindling rapidly. Within eight months of their arrival only thirty-eight colonists were still alive. A young captain, John Smith, would become the settlement’s new leader. He enforced a policy decreeing, â€Å"He that will not worke shall not eate.† Under his leadership the colony was revived but when injured by a gunpowder explosion in 1609 he was sent back to England. John Ratcliffe was elected to take his place and under his command the settlers would experience what would come to b e known as â€Å"the starving times†. Come the end of winter only sixty survived and many of those only did so by consuming their dead neighbors. Along with the difficult situation of food shortages, there were also skirmishes with the local Native Americans. Legend holds that in 1608 Captain John Smith’s life would be spared only due to the pleas from Indian leader Powhatan’s young daughter Pocahontas, who brought food and clothing to the colonis... to this New World ultimately succeeded due to the generosity of the local natives, and due to the fact there was no unification of the local native tribes. Had the Indian natives never helped the settlers learn top plant native crops and provided aid during times of starvation, the settlers’ success would have been limited. Many times settlements were saved from the brink of extinction upon Indian intervention. If Indian tribes had been able to unite together when the settlers first began to arrive, they might have been able to join forces and win a battle against the new arrivals while the colonists numbers were still few. Had the new colonists been faced with an organized fighting force that killed them upon arrival, the European’s might have been too frightened to continue to send new arrivals for fear of slaughter. In the end it would be the English settlers who would prevail†¦ their vast numbers, superior weapons, and unified forces would overcome India n resistance. Bibliography: The World Book Encyclopedia (1999) Agriculture, Indians, and American History – The American Journey, A History of the United States

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Abraham Lincoln and Huckleberry Finn

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is a novel that was written by Mark Twain. The novel was published in 1884 in England and a year later in the United States. The book chronicles the adventures of Huckleberry Finn, a boy running away from being â€Å"sivilized† and Jim, a runaway slave. The book follows them as they travel down the Mississippi River. As the novel progresses and Jim and Huck become closer friends, we begin to see Huck’s inner struggle. He is torn between two different moral commitments- to the slave society he has grown up in and his friendship with Jim.Huck has been trained to tolerate and support slavery, and his friendship with Jim enables him to see the injustice of the institution. Completing my part of the PIOP, Abraham Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamation, enabled me to see the similarities in the beliefs of Abraham Lincoln and Huck. Both grew up in a time and place where slavery was considered acceptable and racism was ever-present. As the two grew up, or in Huck’s case spent time with a slave, their views began to gradually change. It took Lincoln a while longer to believe that slavery was morally wrong, but for most of his life he advocated for the abolishment of slavery.My part of the project gave me an opportunity to research one of the greatest reformers, orator, and president this country has ever seen. Abraham Lincoln’s humble beginnings in a one-room log cabin in Kentucky gave him the ability to empathize with the common man and those less fortunate than him. From the beginning of his political career until his assassination, Abraham Lincoln advocated for the abolishment of slavery, at first saying it would benefit the United States economically and then on the basis that it was morally wrong. Even though his point of view made him unpopular in the South, he was still elected president in 1860.Abraham Lincoln being president guaranteed slaves and free blacks that they had someone on their side; s omeone to advocate on their behalf. When southern states began to secede from the Union and the Civil War broke out, Lincoln was presented with an opportunity to free the slaves once and for all as a war tactic. On January 1, 1863, Lincoln issued a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation that freed all slaves in rebellious states. Although Lincoln maintained that his duty was to â€Å"save the Union, and is not either to save or destroy slavery,† emancipation is argued as one of his greatest achievements.Lincoln was the first president to combat the issue of slavery head-on. Even though the Emancipation Proclamation didn’t as work as well as he hoped, it paved the way for the passage of Amendment 13 which outlawed slavery in the United States. Mark Twain wrote The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn twenty years after the Civil War and the Emancipation Proclamation. Slavery had been abolished and the North and South were somewhat getting along. Why would Twain publish a novel about morals about an institution that was no longer in place? Legally, blacks and whites were equal, but there was still a problem with racism.

Ways to Improve Academic Experience

Ways to Improve Academic Experience in KDI School Reem Salah Academic Writing March 9,2010 Regular exercise is a critical part of staying healthy. People who are active live longer and feel better. Feeling better will make you more encouraged to study and achieve your goals. Also, it is a way to release tension that we are subject to in KDI . Thus, encompassing Physical Education as a core course and expanding the gymnasium is truly a way to improve academic experience in KDI. By encompassing physical education students will exercise and by expanding the gymnasium area more students will be able to go to the gym and exercise. Ultimately resulting in an improved academic experience in KDI. Exercise has positive effects on the brain. Exercise has been found to increase levels of â€Å"brain-derived neurotrophic factor†. This substance is thought to improve mood, and it may play a role in the beneficial effects of exercise†¦ help brain cells survive longer; so this may also explain some of the beneficial effects of exercise on dementia (Holmes, 2006). Demonstrating that by exercise not only on the long run students will not be prone to dementia but also their mood is improved. Mood improvement will result in students working better, feeling better and enhancing their creativity . Encompassing physical education as a core course thus will truly improve the academic experience. KDI School offers comprehensive and rigorous academic programs (School, 2007) . One way to reduce the tension and stress caused by these programs is physical exercise. Research has shown that physical exercise is the best tension reliever (ICBS, 1998). This illustrates that exercise can be a solution to release the tension which KDI students are subject to due to the rigorous academic programs. Also the rigorous programs in KDI require a lot of sitting in front of a computer or a desk all day. By exercising that built up energy and tension which have accumulated throughout the day can be released. It is a better way to channel your energy than letting it turn into anger or negativity. Strongly pointing out that incorporating physical education as one of the core courses will improve the academic experience. To encourage students to continue exercising the gymnasium has to be expanded. Entering class each year is approximately 200 Korean students for the Master’s Degree program and around  160  international students (School, 2007). Illustrating they are 360 students at KDI. To ensure that most of them are encouraged to exercise by going to the gymnasium, the gymnasium area has to be expanded. In an interview conducted B. K Lee (personal communication, March 09, 2010) noted that the gymnasium area is approximately 10 meters and KDI campus area is approximately 10 kilometers. Having 360 students in KDI with a gymnasium that small will discourage students from going there. Since the campus is 10 kilometers in area there will be no problem in expanding the gymnasium area. By doing so, more students will be encouraged to go to the gymnasium, exercise which will result in improving the academic experience in KDI. In conclusion, Exercise has positive effects on the brain. Release built up energy and tensions. Making us work in a better environment. Physical exercise has many benefits and should be a regular part of almost anyone’s life (Association, 2010). By making physical education as one of the core courses will no doubt improve academic experience in KDI and also the health of all the students. In addition expanding the gymnasium area will encourage students to go there often, exercise resulting in improved academic experience. References: Holmes. (2006). Mental health. About. Com. Retrieved 09/03/2010, from http://mentalhealth. about. com/od/depression/a/howexercise. htm ICBS. (1998). Exercise. Stress Management. Retrieved from http://www. holisticonline. om/Stress/stress_exercise. htm KDI School. (2007) Mission and Purpose. KDI School of Public Policy and Management. Retrieved 09/03/2010, from http://www. kdischool. ac. kr/ KDI School. (2007) Questions of the Academic Programs. KDI School of Public Policy and Management. Retrieved 09/03/2010, from http://www. kdischool. ac. kr/ American Heart Association. (2009). Excersice is for everyone. Physical Activity and Excersice. 10/03/2010, from http://www. americanheart. org/presenter . jhtml? identifier=11081